- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:e72
An 8-month-old girl presented with strabismus and developmental delay. Physical examination was notable for macrocephaly, exotropia, and hypotonia. Funduscopic examination revealed a key finding.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:2357-2359
Courts and physicians need to be mindful about the use and misuse of medical-science findings in constitutional conflicts, the cloaking of moral views in scientific guise, and the marshaling of medicine’s cultural authority as a means of persuasion.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:2161-2164
State efforts to prohibit gender-affirming care place physicians’ duties to avoid discrimination, protect privacy, meet standards of care, fulfill reporting requirements, and avoid committing crimes in direct conflict with one another.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:2067-2069
Black girls in America are harmed by intersecting racism and sexism, which manifest in biases, stereotypes, and practices that render them vulnerable to abuse, dehumanization, and death. Our silence about Black girls has clinical consequences throughout their life span.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:1873-1875
Medicine promotes a logically inconsistent message regarding SIDS: authoritative statements imply that SIDS is a consequence of unsafe sleep in biologically normal children, but there is vague acknowledgment that important biologic factors are involved in these deaths.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:e42
An asymptomatic 25-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abnormal results on a preemployment chest radiograph. Computed tomography of the chest revealed herniation of the right kidney, omentum, and intestines into the right thoracic cavity.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:1181-1183
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common adverse outcome of very preterm delivery, affecting up to 75% of infants born before 28 weeks of gestation worldwide.1 It is usually diagnosed if an infant remains oxygen dependent at 28 days of age, and severity is determined at 36 weeks...
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:1121-1131
Glucocorticoids might prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants but have adverse neurodevelopmental effects. In this trial involving preterm infants, there was little difference in survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia or in the occurrence of neurodevelopmental impairment with hydrocortisone as compared with placebo.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:e82
A 38-year-old man presented to the otolaryngology clinic with a long history of difficulty in breathing through his right nostril. Rhinoscopy and computed tomographic imaging showed an inverted ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:1220-1229
A 12-month-old boy with Hirschsprung’s disease was admitted with fever, generalized weakness, intermittent diffuse rash, and regression of crawling. He had leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. CT of the abdomen showed diffuse lymphadenopathy. A diagnostic test was performed.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:967-969
A subtype of structural racism, environmental racism includes the use of racist practices in determining which communities receive health-protective, and which health-harming, infrastructure. What can physicians do about this underlying and often missed diagnosis?
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:416-426
A clinical trial assessed the efficacy of three treatments, all involving metformin, on glycemic control in youth-onset type 2 diabetes. This follow-up study shows that the risk of complications increased steadily over time, and complications developed in most participants by young adulthood.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1566-1567
Hippocrates wrote “let food be thy medicine.” Although access to nourishing food seems to be an obvious solution to the global health crisis of childhood undernutrition, the solution is not simple from a social or metabolic perspective, or even from the perspective of a microbiologist. To effectively address childhood undernutrition,...
- N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1517-1528
This study of the effect of a microbiota-directed supplement on the growth of young children with moderate acute malnutrition included tests of association between changes in growth and changes in the plasma proteome and fecal microbiota.
- N Engl J Med 2020; 383:1904-1905
When an adolescent psychiatrist interviews parents of Black boys, he frequently comes away with a similar narrative — a story in which normative behavior is characterized as aberrant or behaviors classically associated with common diagnoses are misattributed.
- N Engl J Med 2020; 383:e103
A 4-month-old boy presented with a progressively worsening rash on his abdomen, diaper area, limbs, face, and scalp. A biopsy was performed, and a diagnosis of zinc deficiency–associated dermatitis was made.
- N Engl J Med 2020; 383:689-691
Unlike the results published in 2014, these new data show no significant differences in lung function or behavioral outcomes in late adolescence among persons who received high-frequency oscillatory or conventional mechanical ventilation shortly after birth.
- N Engl J Med 2020; 383:321-333
Duodenal and plasma biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction that were identified through analyses of duodenal biopsy samples and the plasma of growth-stunted children were found to induce enteropathy of the small intestine in gnotobiotic mice.
- N Engl J Med 2020; 383:391-393
Linear growth failure, or stunting, is a prevalent condition arising from undernutrition that has been identified as a major global health problem.1 Stunting is strongly associated with economic, health, and neurocognitive sequelae, making linear growth a major nutrition priority. Interventions that have focused on the supplementation of macronutrients...