- N Engl J Med 2022; 387:525-532
Data from Singapore on BNT162b2 vaccination in children 5 to 11 years of age showed that during a period of omicron-variant predominance, BNT162b2 reduced the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19–related hospitalization.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 387:227-236
Two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were associated mainly with low-grade local adverse effects that lasted 2 days or less and afforded nearly 50% protection against omicron infection and symptomatic illness, which was lower than that seen against delta. Greater protection in the youngest group was noted.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 387:109-119
In this study, maternal vaccination with an mRNA vaccine during pregnancy was less common among infants hospitalized for Covid-19 than among controls. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against Covid-19 hospitalization of infants was 52% overall and was greater when delta, rather than omicron, was predominant.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 387:178-179
The benefits of maternal vaccination to the infant through maternal antibody transfer across the placenta have long been recognized. In the 1870s, babies born to mothers who had received smallpox vaccination were unlikely to have smallpox early in life.1 Tetanus toxoid vaccination during pregnancy, along with improved hygiene...
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:2011-2023
In part 1 of a phase 2–3 trial, a 50-μg dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine was safe and immunogenic. In part 2, nearly 4000 6-to-11-year-olds received two doses of vaccine or placebo and were followed for a median of 82 days. The vaccine had mainly mild adverse effects and was immunogenic...
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:1899-1909
In this study evaluating BNT162b2, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization for Covid-19 in the delta-predominant period among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age was more than 90%; during the omicron period, vaccine effectiveness was 40% against hospitalization and 79% against critical illness. Vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization was 68% among children...
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:1638-1645
Development and public acceptance of vaccines are crucial for disease control. This review covers the process of evaluating vaccines for safety and efficacy, authorization pathways, and factors that advisory bodies consider when establishing vaccine recommendations.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:789-790
As a pediatrician who has studied the effect of respiratory viral infections in children for many years, I had difficulty reconciling data from early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic suggesting that the virus largely spared the pediatric population.1,2 This finding differed from outcomes with influenza and...
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:713-723
Investigators used a case–control, test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine in adolescents for the prevention of Covid-19–related hospitalization, ICU admission, or receipt of life support. Among 445 case patients and 777 controls, of the 180 patients admitted to an ICU, only 2 had been fully vaccinated;...
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:e2
Low Covid-19 vaccination rates among U.S. adolescents can be partly explained by some parents’ decision not to consent to vaccination for their children. More states could allow adolescents to independently consent to vaccination, even when their parents are opposed.
- N Engl J Med 2022; 386:35-46
After a dose for further testing was determined in a phase 1 study, a phase 2–3 trial was initiated in which two 10-μg doses of BNT162b2 were given 21 days apart to children 5 to 11 years of age. No serious adverse events were observed. High levels of neutralizing antibodies...
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:2241-2251
In a trial of mRNA-1273 or placebo involving 3700 adolescents 12 to 17 years of age, two doses of vaccine stimulated high levels of neutralizing antibodies, with a side-effect profile similar to that seen in other age groups. The incidence of Covid-19 in the unvaccinated group was too low to...
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:2101-2103
A study involving more than 94,000 vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years in Israel showed increasing levels of protection against Covid-19 during the first month after receipt of two vaccine doses. The estimated vaccine efficacy at 7 to 21 days after receipt of two...
- N Engl J Med 2021; 385:239-250
This randomized trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine involved 2260 adolescents 12 to 15 years of age. Similar levels of antibody to SARS-CoV-2 were elicited in the 12-to-15-year-old participants and in 16-to-25-year-old participants in a parallel trial. Among participants with no evidence of previous infection, no cases of Covid-19 were diagnosed...
- N Engl J Med 2021; 384:2115-2123
Meningococcal disease continues to be a major cause of illness globally. In this report from Mali, a new meningococcal vaccine, which includes a fifth serotype, X, was shown to elicit higher antibody titers than a standard meningococcal vaccine.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1081-1083
The FDA recently authorized two mRNA vaccines for the prevention of Covid-19. Clearance of this hurdle represents the most recent in a series of advances in the realm of viral vaccines, each building on the last and each with a compelling record of disease prevention.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 384:589-591
As we consider vaccinating children against Covid-19, measles and measles vaccination campaigns may offer relevant insights about parents’ decisions; trust, access, and equity; education campaigns and vaccination mandates; and effects of disinformation.
A Half-Century of Progress in Health: The National Academy of Medicine at 50: Vaccine Innovations — Past and FutureN Engl J Med 2021; 384:393-396
Remarkable progress has been made by the use of vaccines. The future holds great promise for vaccine-mediated control of global pathogens, but providing affordable access to effective vaccines for everyone who could benefit from them remains an important challenge.
- N Engl J Med 2021; 384:261-270
Antigen-nonspecific host defenses are altered by infections, with epigenetic changes in the effector cells of natural immunity. Some of these changes enhance immune responses, and some interfere with them. The success of certain vaccination approaches may depend on finding a way to reverse the detrimental epigenetic effects of previous infection.