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Physicians as Political Pawns — The Texas Directive on Gender-Affirming Care and Other Moves

List of authors.
  • Anna Kirkland, J.D., Ph.D.

State efforts to prohibit gender-affirming care place physicians’ duties to avoid discrimination, protect privacy, meet standards of care, fulfill reporting requirements, and avoid committing crimes in direct conflict with one another.

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Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the author are available at

This article was published on April 20, 2022, at

Author Affiliations

From the Institute for Research on Women and Gender and the Departments of Women’s and Gender Studies, Political Science, Sociology, and Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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