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Diagnosis and Treatment of Frostbite

List of authors.
  • Robert L. Sheridan, M.D.,
  • Jeremy M. Goverman, M.D.,
  • and T. Gregory Walker, M.D.

Cold injury is a combination of direct cellular damage from freezing and cellular ischemia from vasospasm and small-vessel thrombosis. The severity is related to the degree to which frozen tissues are reperfused on thawing.

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Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Surgery (R.L.S., J.M.G.) and Radiology (T.G.W.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and Boston Shriners Hospital for Children (R.L.S., J.M.G.) — both in Boston.

Dr. Sheridan can be contacted at or at Shriners Hospital for Children, 51 Blossom St., Boston, MA 02114.

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