This article is available to subscribers. Subscribe now. Already have an account? Sign in

Review ArticleFree Preview

Electroconvulsive Therapy

List of authors.
  • Randall T. Espinoza, M.D.,
  • and Charles H. Kellner, M.D.

ECT is effective for several disorders, particularly severe or treatment-resistant depression, with a rapid response, but stigma has impeded its use. The mechanism is not known, but a seizure is required for efficacy. Effects on memory are prominent though usually transient.

Continue reading this article

Select an option below:

Create your account to get 2 free subscriber-only articles each month.

Get Free Access Now Subscribe For Full Access

Already have an account?

Sign In

Print subscriber?

Activate your online access.

Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (R.T.E.); and the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (C.H.K.).

Dr. Espinoza can be contacted at or at the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 300 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite 2235, Los Angeles, CA 90095.

Print Subscriber? Activate your online access.