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Spina Bifida

List of authors.
  • Bermans J. Iskandar, M.D.,
  • and Richard H. Finnell, Ph.D.

Spina bifida, a congenital disorder of the spinal cord, leads to medical and neurologic complications. Modern surgical techniques and comprehensive medical care have greatly improved outcomes.

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Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at

We thank Joyce Koueik for assistance in background research and Kirk Hogan, Brittany Allen, David Joseph, Jacqueline Parchem, Brady Lundin, Randolph Ashton, John (Jay) Wellons, Abhaya Kulkarni, Catherine Mazzola, and the University of Wisconsin Pediatric Spina Bifida Clinic providers (Blaise Nemeth, Kenneth Noonan, Ruthie Su, Walid Farhat, Lisa McLennan, James [Andy] Stadler, Raheel Ahmed, and Melissa Villejas) for advice or critical comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison (B.J.I.); and the Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, and Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (R.H.F.).

Dr. Iskandar can be contacted at or at University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Ave., K4/832, Madison, WI 53792.

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